Absolute Monarch

  • Citation Machine

    Citation Machine is an interactive Web tool designed to assist teachers in modeling the proper use of information property. Students are welcome to use this as well. You merely:
    1. Click the type of resource you wish to cite,
    2. Complete the Web form that appears with information from your resource, and
    3. Click Make Citations to generate standard MLA & APA citations.
  • Austria- Maria Theresa Timeline

    Empress Maria Theresa was the first and only female head of the Habsburg dynasty. She was Archduchess of Austria, and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and ruler of other territories from 1740 until her death.

  • Maria theresa Austria- Answers.com

    Maria Theresa (1717-1780) was Holy Roman empress from 1740 to 1780. Ruling in the most difficult period of Austrian history, she modernized her dominions and saved them from dissolution.

  • Maria Theresa , 1717-80, Austrian archduchess

    The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition

    Maria Theresa , 1717-80, Austrian archduchess, queen of Bohemia and Hungary (1740-80), consort of Holy Roman EmperorFrancis I and dowager empress after the accession (1765) of her son, Joseph II. Her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI , altered the Hapsburg family law by the pragmatic sanction of 1713 so that she might succeed to the Hapsburg lands.

  • Catherine the Great

    Catherine the Great was born Sophie Auguste Frederike. She was a German princess. She married Peter III at the invitation of Peter III's mother, Elizabeth I. At the time of her marriage, she took the name Catherine and became a member of the Russian Orthodox church.

  • Catherine the Great - Empress of All the Russias

  • Catherine the Great-Russia

    She had been born Princess Sophia August Frederika on May 2, 1729 in the Baltic seaport town of Stettin, then a part of German Pomerania. Her father was an obscure German military princeling named Christian August, and her mother was Princess Joanna Elizabeth of Holstein-Gottorp. Her father was nominal ruler of the tiny principality of Anhalt-Zerbst, but the greater part of his life was spent as an officer in the service of Prussia. Little Sophia was nicknamed Feke or Figchen. Little is known about her early life, except that which Catherine related in her unfinished autobiography years later.
  • Catherine the Great- Modern History Sourcebook

    Modern History Sourcebook: 
    Catherine the Great


    Catherine II (l762-1796), a German princess who became Empress of Russia after disposing of her ineffectual husband was one of the most successful European monarchs. She followed Peter the Great in seeing Russia (which had been part of an Asian Empire for centuries) as European Power. Among her other achievements, added some 200 000 square miles to the territory of the Russian empire.

  • Charles I - The House Of Stuart -England

    Born at Dunfermline Palace, Fife on 19th November, 1600, Charles I was the second son and third child of James VI of Scotland , later I of England and his Queen Anne of Denmark. He was a sickly baby, who was baptized quickly, underlining the fact that he was not expected to survive.

  • Charles I - England

    Charles I was born in Fife on 19 November 1600, the second son of James VI of Scotland (from 1603 also James I of England) and Anne of Denmark. 

    He became heir to the throne on the death of his brother, Prince Henry, in 1612. He succeeded, as the second Stuart King of England, in 1625.

    Controversy and disputes dogged Charles throughout his reign. They eventually led to civil wars, first with the Scots from 1637 and later in England (1642-46 and 1648). The wars deeply divided people at the time, and historians still disagree about the real causes of the conflict, but it is clear that Charles was not a successful ruler.

  • England-Charles I -From Britannia

    Charles I was born in 1600, the second son of James I and Anne of Denmark. After several unsuccessful attempts at arranging a marriage, Charles married the 15 year-old daughter of France's King Henry IV, Henrietta Maria. Three years of coldness and indifference ensued, but the pair finally became devoted to each other, producing four sons (Charles [who died as a teenager], Charles [who became Charles II], James and Henry) and five daughters (Mary, Elizabeth, Anne, Catherine and Henrietta Anne). Charles I was executed for treason in 1649.
  • England-Charles I - From Encarta

    Charles I (of England) (1600-1649), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649), who was deposed and executed during the English Revolution.
  • Ivan IV, Ivan Grozny

    Ivan The TerribleAlso: Ivan IV, Ivan Grozny  1530-1584
    CZAR OF ALL RUSSIA 1547-1584

  • Ivan The Terrible

    Ivan the Terrible succeeded his father Vasilii III and was the first Grand Prince to have himself officially crowned tsar.

  • Ivan the Terrible - AKA Ivan Vasilyevich

    Executive summary: Russian Tsar, 1533-84

  • Ivan the Terrible, Ivan-the-Terrible.com

    Russian History: Tsarism and Tsars.

  • James I - England

    James I was born in 1566 to Mary Queen of Scots and her second husband, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley. He descended from the Tudors through Margaret, daughter of Henry VII : both Mary Queen of Scots and Henry Stewart were grandchildren of Margaret Tudor.
  • James I (1603-25 AD)

    James I was born in 1566 to Mary Queen of Scots and her second husband, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley. He descended from the Tudors through Margaret, daughter of Henry VII : both Mary Queen of Scots and Henry Stewart were grandchildren of Margaret Tudor.

  • James I of England IV of Scotland

    James VI of Scotland was the only child of Mary, Queen of Scots. James' father was Lord Darnley (Henry Stewart) who had been killed in a suspicious explosion, the rumor being that the explosion was caused by Mary and Lord Bothwell, whom she would later marry. At thirteen months when Mary was forced to abdicate in favor of James, he became the King of Scotland and never saw his mother again, although at one point before her execution he did make some contact during an ill-hatched plot to restore her to the throne. While Mary was in prison she tried to send presents to James, but Elizabeth I would not let them be sent to Scotland
  • France- Louis XIV - Catholic Encyclopedia

    Until 1661 the real master of France was Cardinal Mazarin, under whose government his country, victorious over Austria (1643-48) and Spain (1643-59), acquired by the Treaties of Westphalia (1648) and the Pyrennes (1659) Alsace, Artois, and Roussillon, which had already been occupied by French troops since the days of Richelieu. As a result of the marriage between Louis XIV and Maria Theresa of Austria, Louis XIV also acquired rights over the Low Countries.

  • Prussia- Frederick the Great

    Frederick II, the Great (1712-86), king of Prussia (1740-1786), remains one of the most famous German rulers of all time for his military successes and his domestic reforms that made Prussia one of the leading European nations.
  • Frederick the Great - King of Prussia

    Frederick the Great ruled Prussia from 1740-1786. Unlike his rough father, Frederick William, Frederick the Great (officially known as Frederick II) detested the Spartan, military life so loved by his father. Instead, Frederick embraced the finer things in life, including learning, philosophy and the arts.

  • Louis XIV France- The Sun King

    Louis XIV was born at the Royal chateau in Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1638. He was only five when he became king on the death of his father, Louis XIII. The regency, confided to his mother, Anne of Austria, was marked by a period of rebellion known as the Fronde (1648-1653), led first by the nobility and later by the urban commoners.

  • France- Louis XIV

    Louis XIV of France ranks as one of the most remarkable monarchs in history. He reigned for 72 years, 54 of them he personally controlled French government. The 17th century is labeled as the age of Louis XIV. Since then his rule has been hailed as the supreme example of a type of government - absolutism. He epitomized the ideal of kingship. During his reign France stabilized and became one of the strongest powers in Europe.

  • Philip II -Spain

    Philip II was King of Spain from 1556 to 1598. During his reign the Spanish Empire attained its greatest power and widest geographical extent but also suffered setbacks in its relations with the Protestant nations of northern Europe.  
    • Philip II of Spain - a timeline

      Timeline on Philip II

    • Russia-Peter the Great

      Peter the Great was born in 1672 and he died in 1725. Peter was tsar of Russia from 1682 to 1725. His self-given title was Peter the Great though he was officially Peter I.
    • Russia-Peter the Great

      Peter the Great was the fourteenth child of Alexei Mikhailovich, born on May 30, 1672, from his second marriage to Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina. Having ruled jointly with his brother Ivan V from 1682, with Ivan's death in 1696, Peter was officially declared Sovereign of all Russia.
      During his reign, Peter undertook extensive reforms: He created a regular army and navy, subjugated the Church to the state and introduced new administrative and territorial divisions of the country. He paid particular attention to the development of science. He was a far-sighted and skillful diplomat and a talented military leader.